La Biografía completa de Alberto Durero
"Some think they know everyone, when in reality they don't know themselves."
Albrecht Dürer or Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) is a German painter and printmaker. The son of a Hungarian goldsmith, established in Nuremberg, Dürer soon abandoned his father's learning of the art, he practiced drawing, painting and engraving in the workshop of the painter M.Wolgemut.
He completed his training in the many trips he made to Switzerland, Alsace and Lorraine during the years 1490 and 1494 and in the subsequent and successive trips to Italy between 1494 and 1505, which gave him the opportunity to fully know the works of the Italian Renaissance. Between these dates we must insert their wedding in 1494, which was an unhappy wedding.
Important painter for his transcendence in the painters who years later would be influenced by him.
His pictorial work and his engravings (distributed all over the world) are a tangible example of Dürer's evolution in all fields (both professionally and personally).
To talk about the style of Dürer, one must refer to two theories: one, which considers him the highest representative of the German Renaissance, and the other, which considers him as the culmination of the Gothic and an introduction to the Renaissance, that is, as a transition figure. In order not to opt for any theory, we will study his style following his pictorial and engraving production and thus, at the same time, we will follow his evolution.
I am forced to make a clear difference between engraving and painting:
While his engravings continue with the Gothic tradition that is observed in the search for expressiveness, the picturesque details, in how the contours are formed, modeling through thick lines and with a dramatic intensity typical of the Germanic world. Among the most famous engravings we highlight: The Knight and Death, The Melancholy, Saint Jerome or Scenes of Passion, Jesus among the Doctors ...; In some engravings we observe some changes due mostly to the trips made to Italy, such as introducing moving bodies, of a pagan feeling that brought Venetian sweetness closer to them.
At the same time, his painting follows a small evolution due to how his training was carried out: traveling. At first we find a painting with clear surviving Gothic characteristics. After his travels through Flanders and Italy, Renaissance characteristics such as attention to nature, the worrying and questioning gaze that he shows us in his self-portraits, idealism, feeling (which appears suddenly in the figure of Adam and Eve) will begin to develop in him. that reveal a manifest naivety before the beauty of the human body), paganism (which will not be repeated), enameled colors, a predominance of drawing over color, an angular brushstroke. Later when painting "The Four Apostles" he renounces some characteristics previously mentioned by large, monumental, and strong figures that remind us of classical statues. It is true that it reached a purely Renaissance classicism with a lot of naturalism. It should be noted that Dürer made all his paintings on canvas, with a great mastery of the technique, a wide palette of colors, through simple, serene, balanced compositions ... all this typical of the Renaissance.
The aforementioned makes Dürer a difficult character to pigeonhole in a specific style.
Dürer is a restless, tireless, curious man and tremendously in love with Italian art.
As an observation, his numerous treatises on human proportions stand out, where he exposes his theories to achieve this balance.
Dürer is an author who despite having a painting with its own characteristics to which many influences can be attributed, we can frame him within the Renaissance movement.
The Renaissance arises in Italy in the 15th century, which is the era of geographical discoveries, conquests, the beginning of the loss of power of the Church and the appearance of nationalisms.
It is a movement that governs the cult of antiquity and classical authors. The truth is that the Renaissance is a purely Italian movement and it is very difficult for us to speak of a pure Renaissance outside of here. In countries like Germany (where Dürer comes from), the Netherlands and other Europeans, the Renaissance will not excessively mark the canons to follow; It is true that it was in painting where the guidelines were most followed.
It has always been said that art is the best reflection of the political, economic, social and religious situation of a country, and it should be noted that Germany is currently experiencing a period of certain uncertainty and concern due to political problems and religious who are beginning to threaten it.
These problems are reflected in all art, especially painting, because nevertheless, together with sculpture, these are the ones that allow the artist's feelings to be better expressed.
Dürer will be a clear example of the latter.
The Renaissance will live its apogee in the second phase (16th century) where Rome would be the capital of production and the great authors would be revived, and its decline would begin in the second half of the 17th century, where it fell into an aesthetic formalist and that would give way to the Baroque.